Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile, of solid round, square or rectangular shapes, to L shapes and T shapes, tubes and many other different types. Metal is pushed through a die of the desired shape using either a
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Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile, of solid round, square or rectangular shapes, to L shapes and T shapes, tubes and many other different types. Metal is pushed through a die of the desired shape using either a mechanical or hydraulic press, resulting in the finished product. The cavity in which the raw material is pressed is lined with a wear resistant material which can withstand the pressure that is created when the material is pushed through, making extrusion possible without deforming or tearing the metal.
Aluminium extrusion is generally used in the manufacture of windows, doors and balustrades, but is also found in thousands of other items like vehicle parts, truck trays, boats and other marine products and refrigeration, etc to name a few.
Two advantages of this technique over other manufacturing processes are its ability to create very complex cross-sections, plus being able to work materials that are brittle, because the material only encounters compressive and shear stresses. It also forms finished parts with an excellent surface finish. Extrusions often minimise the need for secondary machining. They are not of the same dimensional accuracy or surface finish as machined parts, however, the process produces a wide variety of cross-sections that are hard to produce cost-effectively using other methods.
Extrusion may be continuous (producing indefinitely long material), or semi-continuous (producing many pieces). The minimum thickness of steel is about 3mm, whereas aluminum and magnesium is about 1mm. The extrusion process can be done with the material hot or cold.
Metals that are commonly extruded:
* Aluminium is the most commonly extruded material and can be hot or cold extruded
* Brass is used to extrude corrosion free rods, automobile parts, pipe fittings, engineering parts
* Copper pipe, wire, rods, bars, tubes, and welding electrodes
* Lead and tin pipes, wire, tubes, and cable sheathing
* Magnesium is used in aircraft parts and nuclear industry parts, and is about as extrudable as aluminum
* Zinc rods, bars, tubes, hardware components, fittings and handrails
* Steel rods and tracks -Usually plain carbon steel is extruded, but alloy steel and stainless steel can also be extruded
* Titanium is often used in aircraft components including seat tracks, engine rings, and other structural parts.
Clean Metals for Recycling
The cleaner that a metal is when it’s taken into a scrap metal yard to sell, the better price it will fetch per kilo, as foreign matter is costly to clean off, so this product will always be penalised accordingly in terms of the price. By this we mean no concrete, screws, glass, paper or any other foreign material attached.
All the metal we buy is processed by cleaning any non-metallic off it as required, cutting it into smaller pieces, and then it is put through a baling press to maximise the weights for export to South East Asia, where it will be melted down and manufactured into new products.
The Extrusion Process
The process begins by heating the material (for hot or warm extrusion). It is then loaded into the container for pressing. A dummy block is placed behind it where the ram then presses the material to push it out of the die. Afterward, the extrusion is stretched in order to straighten it. If higher quality properties are required then it may be heat treated or cold worked.
Cold extrusion is done at or near room temperature. Advantages of this over hot extrusion are the lack of oxidation, higher strength due to cold working, closer tolerances, good surface finish, and fast extrusion speeds if the material is subject to heat for a short period.
Graphic design professionals design various graphic works for logos, brands, publications, product packaging and advertisements. The graphic works are rendered with the help of graphic file formats such as EPS, PNG, GIF and JPG. All the above graphic file formats are known as the bitmap graphics which consist of thousands of small colored squares or pixels in the form of a checkerboard grid. Bitmap files are produced by digital cameras and cell phones, and these files can be created, resized, optimized and edited easily to use in web programs. Most of the web browsers use JPG and GIF file formats as they compresses the size of the file for the efficient delivery of files through the internet.
GIF file formats are used for the creation of web graphics. GIF files support only 256 colors, and can be used in almost all the computer platforms. EPS file formats are used to create images with duotone/monotones and clipping paths. JPG file format is used for web graphics with great amount of gradations and colors. PNG is a file format created to overcome the limitations of GIF. PNG file formats provide lossless compression without any copyright limitations.
Working file formats are of two types- original as well as derivative files. Original files are the JPEG files or raw (unrendered) files that are created by the camera, whereas derivative files are made out of the original files. The rendered as well as unrendered formats are used as the working file formats. Raw files are used with PIE software and the rendered files are used both in pixel editing software and PIE. The JPEG file cannot be used as the working file because of the lossy compression. Working files cannot display graphics properly as they are mainly used for printing the documents. Working files cannot display quality images as required by the web based programs.
Working files are normally used for storing and viewing documents, notes etc. The different working file formats are .DAT, .DCF, .DCT, .DO, .DOC, .DTA, .FRQ, .FRW, .MAP, .SAS, .SD2, .SPS and .WRN. The working files can be included in a .ZIP file which contains a data file, different definitions of the date and other such documentation. The file types will differ according to the file format and the data type included. You can extract the working files from the .ZIP file. With the help of Winzip or PKUNZIP, you can extract the working files. Working files are primarily used for documentation, but design studios are creating graphics for various purposes. It is not possible to create graphics using the working files. Therefore, professional designers do not release working files.